By Jaswant Singh, H. N. Dutta
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Extra info for Antarctica: The Most Interactive Ice-Air-Ocean Environment (Arctic Regioni and Antarctica Issues and Research)
Keywords: Acoustic sounder, Marine boundary layer, Shipborne, Southern Ocean. 1. INTRODUCTION Antarctica is a magnificent display of interaction between air and the various phases of water (vapor, liquid and solid) in a pristine atmosphere, where the direct solar energy reaches the Pole for six months of the year at very low elevation angle, and for the other six months of the year, it is dark. 5 m km2 (or a circle with a radius of about 2000 km). , 2004; Hall and Visbeck, 2002; Parkinson, 2004; Simmonds and King, 2004; Naithani, 1995).
Similarly, in the case of thermal convection, the plume rise has variability between 100450m but most of the plumes reach up to a height of 300 m (Figure 7). It is important to note that over ocean, the development of thermal plumes may not just due to the surface heating of the upper oceanic surfaces but it can also be due to the warm water, after all, thermals indicate only relativeness in the surface and upper air temperatures. Figure 6. Thermal plumes are an important atmospheric phenomenon in the Antarctic atmosphere as they represent surface air to be much warmer than the air aloft.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors are grateful to Dr. S. Gera, who supported the development of shipborne acoustic sounder in India. Authors would like to thank members of various Indian Scientific Expedition teams, who helped in the installation of acoustic sounders onboard various ships sailing over east Antarctica. Thanks are also due to the Chairman, CSIR-SCAR for selecting and providing field support to various NPL Antarctic teams. E. P. Makshtas: Simulations of Snow, Ice, and Near-Surface Atmospheric Processes on Ice Station Weddell.
Antarctica: The Most Interactive Ice-Air-Ocean Environment (Arctic Regioni and Antarctica Issues and Research) by Jaswant Singh, H. N. Dutta